Thought Leadership on Infrastructure Renewal

There are many competing visions of what the American infrastructure should look like, what it should include or exclude, how it should be operated, who should own it, how it is funded, and who can use it. Different constituencies give varying weights to each of these and other relevant factors in prioritizing specific projects to undertake and the manner in which infrastructure improvements are located, constructed and operated. Without careful planning based on core sets of principles, objective data and other relevant input, prioritization is too often driven by the exigencies of crumbling concrete, service failures, or accidental deaths that will understandably direct resources to the most recent emergency repairs.

AIRRC provides below resources to assist stakeholders in considering existing sets of principles and theories that can support a structured process of planning a series of infrastructure projects designed to address the broad set of physical needs of individual communities, regions and/or the nation as a whole. We have sought to organize relevant portions of these materials around the core characteristics that drive the AIRRC’s mission – that is, that the American infrastructure be not only resilient, sustainable, efficient, environmentally sound and adaptive, but also reflect core American principles of social justice, equity and inclusiveness. These are, of course, not the only principles that may be relevant or that some stakeholders may prioritize, and such other principles are also discussed in the resources we identify below.


On a Resilient, Sustainable, Efficient,
Environmentally Sound and Adaptive American Infrastructure

Think Tank Infrastructure Resources

American Enterprise Institute:

AEI on Infrastructure and Transportation (review AEI posts on infrastructure)

The Myth of America’s Crumbling Infrastructure“The real problem is that we dont spend money on the right problems” (read more)

A Few Charts on the State of America’s Infrastructure“… as these White House charts show, talk of an infrastructure ‘crisis’ seems overblown” (read more)

Bipartisan Policy Center:

BPC Infrastructure Project“… a working group of corporate CEOs and executives that advances recommendations to increase private sector investment in U.S. infrastructure projects” (read more about the project)

Six Big Ideas for Infrastructure“To solve the $2 trillion funding gap and position the United States for the future, any infrastructure effort should include these six big ideas …” (read the post) (read more posts from the BPC blog)

BPC Infrastructure Podcasts“The Infrastructure Debate” (listen to BPC infrastructure podcasts)

Bridging the Gap Together: A New Model to Modernize U.S. Infrastructure“… establishes the framework to unite projects that need funding with private capital ready to invest in a transparent system that allocates risks and resources to the public’s benefit” (read the report) (review other BPC reports)

Brookings Institution:

Brookings on Infrastructure (read about Brookings’ views on infrastructure)

Why is Federal Infrastructure Policy So Difficult?“Our path to a new federal infrastructure policy is blocked by irrational expectations around limited funding, a failure to appreciate the diversity of needs, and misaligned incentives” (read more) (read more from the Metropolitan Infrastructure Initiative blog)

Four Ways to Make Wiser Infrastructure Investments“… ways to make wiser choices at all levels of government from Washington D.C. to state capitals, county seats, and the home offices of infrastructure operators” (read more)

Local Transportation Policy and Economic Opportunity“… policies for bus transit, highway funding, and congestion pricing hold promise to improve access to economic opportunity and reduce transportation costs” (read the policy brief) (read the full report)

Cato Institute:

Who Owns U.S. Infrastructure?“… state and local governments and the private sector own 97 percent of the nation’s nondefense infrastructure, and they fund 94 percent of it. That decentralized approach to ownership and funding is a strength of the American economy—a strength that would be undermined by increased federal spending and intervention” (read the bulletin)

Who Should Pay for Infrastructure?“… users of infrastructure should pay for it generally, not taxpayers” (read more)

Infrastructure, It’s Time for a Bipartisan Deal“So, what type of infrastructure program might overcome the political time preference bias and win bipartisan support …?” (read more)

Center for American Progress:

Building Progressive Infrastructure: How Infrastructure Investments Can Create Jobs, Strengthen Communities, and Tackle the Climate Crisis“When done right, infrastructure investments produce broad-based prosperity for American workers, facilitating social mobility and access to jobs, essential services, educational opportunities, people, and ideas” (read the report)

State Future Funds: Investing in Community Resilience Across the United States“… State Future Funds would offer state leaders a forward-thinking and equitable approach to modernizing infrastructure that would support state economies and help communities prepare for the future” (read more)

5 Ways the New Congress Should Support Resilient Infrastructure“… lawmakers must do more than patch potholes and refurbish bridges. States and localities need significantly more assistance to plan for and mitigate the effects of more extreme weather, particularly in areas that face the greatest risks and have the most needs” (read the column)

5 Recommendations to Speed Infrastructure Permitting Without Gutting Environmental Review“Instead of asking Congress to cut corners and gut cornerstone environmental laws, here are five ways that federal agencies and their partners can use the tools already at their disposal to speed infrastructure permitting” (read the recommendations)

Investing in Charging Infrastructure for Plug-In Electric Vehicles“… focuses on what states can do to ensure that adequate charging infrastructure is available” (read the report)

The Importance of NEPA Review for Infrastructure Projects“… fdemonstrate how NEPA strengthens infrastructure projects, as well as how federal environmental, civil rights, and historic preservation statutes guide the content of the review” (read the issue brief)

Economic Policy Institute:

What is the Ideal Mix of Federal, State, and Local Government Investment in Infrastructure?“… the benefits of a strong role for the federal government in funding, financing, and overseeing infrastructure investments are, in fact, often greater than advertised” (read the report)

No Free Bridge – Why Public–Private Partnerships or Other ‘Innovative’ Financing of Infrastructure Will Not Save Taxpayers Money“… engaging the private sector in infrastructure procurement and management does not provide a fiscal free lunch. There are substantial costs and risks that must be taken into account to fairly compare the costs and benefits relative to traditional infrastructure financing and procurement” (read the report)

A Public Investment Agenda that Delivers the Goods for American Workers Needs to be Long-Lived, Broad, and Subject to Democratic Oversight“… public finance is the most transparent, efficient, and accountable way of financing infrastructure” (read the policy brief)

Eno Center for Transportation:

Tools for a Smoother Ride: Managing Rail Assets and Leveraging Competition“… explore how public transit agencies can be more cost-effective, improve outcomes, and increase accountability for upkeep, maintenance, and modernization of their existing rail systems” (read the paper)

Could a Federal Revolving Fund Help Transportation Infrastructure?“… the annual appropriations process under the current system of budget ceilings and baselines really isnt set up to deal with a program that might need a billion dollars in a single year for a really big acquisition but which might only need $200-300 million per year in most other years” (read more)

New Report Examines True Federal Cost of State/Local Infrastructure Financing“… federally supported financing mechanisms have supported an average of $64.4 billion per year in state and local spending on transportation and water infrastructure” (read more)

Transportation at the Ballot Box 2018“An average of $184 million per measure was approved so far this year including several major multi-year packages …” (review the data and analysis)

Farm Foundation:

Farm Foundation on Infrastructure“… working to ensure that the needs of rural America are not overlooked” (read more)

Economic Returns to Rural Infrastructure Investments“… practical research on the economic returns of investments in rural infrastructure, including highways, bridges, railways, broadband, electrical systems, and water and sewer systems” (review research reports)

Whats on the Horizon for E-Connectivity in Rural America“… focused on identifying the challenges rural communities now face in providing quality broadband services, as well as the innovative options being used to address those challenges” (read more)

Heritage Foundation:

Regulatory Reform Is the Key to Unlocking Infrastructure Investment“… any infrastructure package must be fiscally responsible and include enduring regulatory reforms that allow new projects to be completed in a timely manner” (read the backgrounder)

Unleashing America’s Resources – Transportation“… to achieve maximum efficiency and accountability, vital infrastructure decisions should be made at the local and state level, as well as by the private sector, free from federal mandates” (read the policy brief)

Driving Investment, Fueling Growth: How Strategic Reforms Can Generate $1.1 Trillion in Infrastructure Investment“… policymakers can generate $1.1 trillion in private and public investment over 10 years by eliminating mandates that drive up the cost of current spending, reforming regulations that hamper infrastructure projects, and refocusing the federal government’s role on national priorities” (read the backgrounder)

Information Technology & Innovation Foundation:

A Policymaker’s Guide to Rural Broadband Infrastructure“… discusses some available policy tools on the table for a future push for rural broadband deployment …” (read the report)

Time to Modernize How We Pay for Infrastructure“… vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) system, a new approach to surface transportation infrastructure financing that would leverage technology to ensure users – particularly heavy trucks – pay their full costs” (see the post) (read the full article)

A Policymaker’s Guide to Connected Cars“Policymakers should take steps to spur the continued deployment of connected cars, especially by ensuring that connected cars can talk to connected infrastructure” (read the report)

How National Governments Can Help Smart Cities Succeed“With the development of new technologies to collect, analyze, act on, and share municipal data, urban infrastructure and services no longer need to be static and unresponsive, but can instead adapt to changing needs” (see the post) (read the full report)

Manhattan Institute:

MI Urban Policy – Infrastructure & Transportation“… simply showering federal money on infrastructure is not the right solution” (read more about the Project)

Rebuilding America’s Infrastructure“… proposals for how best to achieve America’s infrastructure goals while keeping an eye focused on the bottom line” (read the report)

Milken Institute:

Rebuilding America’s Infrastructure“… the evidence of decline needs to be measured in the increasingly evident drag on productivity growth, the growing risks to safety and the nagging impact on social equity” (read more)

Paying for Infrastructure“… infrastructure overhaul did not occur in the past two years for the same reason we’ve been in gridlock on infrastructure spending for decades: there’s no agreement on how to pay for it” (read more)

Pew Charitable Trusts:

Pew on Infrastructure“Making smart choices about infrastructure policy can help address larger policy challenges, from transportation to technology to flood protection” (read about Pew’s infrastructure work)

Broadband Research Initiative“… research on issues related to broadband access and expansion, including the economic impacts of broadband and the collection, verification, and visualization of connectivity data” (read about Pew’s broadband initiatives)

RAND Corporation:

Not Everything Is Broken: The Future of U.S. Transportation and Water Infrastructure Funding and Finance“… identifies the policies that promote and deter investment in and maintenance of U.S. transportation and water infrastructure” (read the report)

RAND Climate Resilience Center“… changing how we plan, build, and sustain our societal and physical systems to become more resilient to the unavoidable impacts of climate change” (review RAND’s climate resilience projects)

Rockefeller Foundation:

City Resilience Framework“The notion of a resilient city becomes conceptually relevant when chronic stresses or sudden shocks threaten widespread disruption or the collapse of physical or social system” (read the framework)

100 Resilient Cities – Building Urban Resilience with Nature: A Practitioner’s Guide to Action“Nature and nature-based infrastructure are becoming recognized as an alternative for many cities. They not only meet specific service targets for water supply or flood management, but also provide a broad array of co-benefits, such as creating new parks and advancing equity and health for underserved neighborhoods” (read the guide)

Urban Institute:

Using Dollars with Sense: Ideas for Better Infrastructure Choices“… look beyond funding and into the way we choose which infrastructure projects are built and which are not” (review infrastructure briefs)

Cultivating a Strategic Project Portfolio through Transportation Asset Management“Thoughtful and rigorous implementation of transportation asset management requirements can strengthen the portfolio of executable infrastructure projects nationwide …” (read more)

Financing the Development in Transit-Oriented Development“… illustrates the role that CDFIs can have in promoting equitable development at the municipal level” (read more)

Academic Infrastructure Resources

Below are selected free resources on infrastructure thinking from academia. Unfortunately, much of the research conducted through academic institutions ultimately is published in professional journals that establish pay-walls for access to their publications. We hope to highlight some promising articles for users to consider, although free access to such materials will not normally be available through this website. Check back soon.

George Mason University Mercatus Center:

Fixing American Infrastructure: Unleash Market Forces and Promote Devolution“… the surest way to have world-class infrastructure is through market-based reforms to privatize asset management, increase competition, and dramatically reduce government subsidies and regulations” (read the policy brief)

Resolved: Cities Should Build for Autonomous Vehicles/Cities Should Not Build for Autonomous Vehicles“… two-part series … discussing the future of autonomous vehicle infrastructure” (read the “pro” argument) (read the “con” argument)

Federal Highway Funding Needs to Change” A reduction in the federal fuel tax would make it politically easier for states to set their fuel tax rates at levels that could fund their particular highway needs. To strengthen planners’ incentives to choose high-return projects, states must foot a larger share of the bill for highway construction costs” (read the paper)

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine - Transportation Research Board (TRB):

Rebuilding and Retrofitting the Transportation Infrastructure“The imperative to rebuild and retrofit U.S. transportation infrastructure is clear and pressing” (read the research circular)

Guidebook to Funding Transportation Through Land Value Return and Recycling“Investments in new or enhanced facilities such as highway interchanges and transit stations improve access and generate commercial activity, reduce transportation costs, or otherwise enhance the locational advantages of a geographic area; these advantages are often observable as increased land values. Land value return and recycling—a subset of real estate value capture mechanisms—is a method for generating revenue to pay for improvements in the transportation system by collecting fees or taxes on that increased value” (download the guidebook)

Evolving Debt Finance Practices for Surface Transportation“States use debt to leverage available resources and accelerate investments when compared with funding projects on a pay-as-you-go basis” (download the report)

Sustainable Critical Infrastructure Systems: A Framework for Meeting 21st Century Imperatives“… a paradigm shift is needed in how the nation thinks about, builds, operates, and invests in critical infrastructure systems in the long term …” (read online, download or purchase)

Future Interstate Study“… a study on the actions needed to upgrade and restore the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways to its role as a premier system that meets the growing and shifting demands of the 21st century” (read about the study)

Public Works Management & Policy (Journal):

G. Hodge & C. Greve – On Public–Private Partnership Performance: A Contemporary Review“… to the extent that infrastructure P3s continue to show popularity, governments may stress P3 success more on the basis of political and governance strengths, than utilitarian characteristics” (read more)

Social Science Research Council (SSRC):

The Cities Papers – An Essay Collection from The Decent City Initiative“How can the core characteristics of big cities be mobilized to make human life more just and democratic?” (read the essays)

P. Jargowsky – The Spatial Dimensions of Inequality“Land use policy, zoning, planning, growth management, mortgage lending, highway construction, and infrastructure construction and subsidies are just a few of the myriad ways that government determines the inequality from one neighborhood to the next” (read more)

R. Sampson – Notes on Neighborhood Inequality and Urban Design“… to be effective, urban policy needs to confront deep structures often many years in the making” (read more)

Stanford University Global Projects Center (GPC):

US Federal Infrastructure Policy: Opportunities for Change“… how federal infrastructure policies can (1) support local infrastructure without prescribing it, (2) reform stakeholder engagement, (3) improve contracting and delivery models, (4) apply long-term approaches for long-term projects, and (5) increase federal capacity to implement megaprojects of regional and national significance” (read the white paper)

A ‘New Governance’ Approach to Public-Private Partnerships: Lessons for the Public Sector“… normative governance recommendations to promote efficiency, efficacy, equity, and institutional legitimacy of PPP delivery in the United States” (read the paper)

GPC Publications Library“… facilitate understanding of the financing, developing and governance of strategic assets that underpin dynamism and competitiveness in today’s global economy” (access research publications)

University of North Carolina School of Government Environmental Finance Center:

Alternative Water Project Delivery Models“… examined the potential benefits of alternative water project and service delivery partnerships and mechanisms” (review the research)

Tools to Assist Water Utilities with Financial Decision Making“… tools cover a broad range of finance and management topics, including rates and revenue, financial benchmarking, affordability, capital finance, communicating with the board, and evaluating loans and grants” (access the tools)

University of Pennsylvania Wharton School:

Why Private Investment in Public Infrastructure Is Declining“The use of public-private partnerships to build everything from airports to parking garages is an increasingly popular finance mechanism for governments that are strapped for cash. But private companies are increasingly less interested in investing in these types of ventures” (listen to the podcast and read the transcript)

U.S. Infrastructure Renewal: Who Should Pay the Bill?“… the Trump administration … plan sparked controversy about what kind of infrastructure deserved top priority, and how to finance it” (read more)

University of Virginia Miller Center:

Rebuilding a Crumbling Infrastructure“The moment is ripe to invest in America’s roads, ports, bridges, and airports” (read the essays)

Water Research Foundation (WRF):

Resilient Water Infrastructure: Improving Understanding and Assessing Needs
“The desire for a resilient water sector has fast become an international keystone of utility governance, with industry bodies and regulatory agencies flagging the need for resilience thinking and looking for mechanisms to help boost resilience” (read the project report)

Incentives for Green Infrastructure Implementation on Private Property: Lessons Learned“Green infrastructure (GI) has become an increasingly important component of municipal stormwater programs” (read the executive summary)

Integrating Master Planning and Condition Assessment: A Road Map for Utilities“When choosing to reinvest in infrastructure, two potential errors can be made. One is underinvestment. The second is misplaced investment (e.g., replacing the wrong facilities, or wasting money better spent elsewhere)” (read the executive summary)

New and Emerging Capital Providers for Infrastructure Funding: Case Studies“… 10 case studies, covering financial alternatives such as green bonds, century bonds, public-private partnerships, private placements, WIFIA, self-financing, and integrated financing” (read the case studies)

We expect to update this page in the near future to include additional academic perspectives on principles to guide American infrastructure renewal. Check back soon.

Business/Trade Association Infrastructure Resources

American Institute of Architects (AIA):

Where We Stand: Buildings are Infrastructure“Buildings are just as vital to our safety, security and sustenance as roads, bridges and mass transit systems” (read more)

Blueprint for Better Cities: Perspectives on 21st Century Design and Urbanism“… the built environment is a significant factor in today’s major public health challenges, notably including obesity, diabetes, and heart disease” (read mmore)

Community Resilience Design Resources“The health, habitability, and function of a building are largely dependent upon the community’s services, infrastructure, and residents” (read more)

American Planning Association (APA):

Financing Green Infrastructure Projects“Green infrastructure uses largely natural processes (trees, soil, floodplains, and wetlands) to retain and treat stormwater at its source, reducing the amount of water and improving the quality of the water that eventually enters a community’s waterways” (read the briefing paper)

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE):

Guiding Principles for the Nation’s Critical Infrastructure“… a set of interdependent guiding principles to inform the planning, funding, design, construction, and operation of critical infrastructure systems” (read the principles)

Failure to Act: Closing the Infrastructure Investment Gap for America’s Economic Future“… deteriorating infrastructure, long known to be a public safety issue, has a cascading impact on our nation’s economy, impacting business productivity, gross domestic product (GDP), employment, personal income, and international competitiveness” (read the update)

Maximizing the Value of Investments Using Life Cycle Cost Analysis“A poor choice today can be amplified in future decades as the inflexible and long life nature of infrastructure can create unaffordable requirements in the future” (read the paper)

Business Roundtable:

Business Roundtable on Infrastructure“… supports policies that will increase investment in key infrastructure projects and modernize how the future transportation system is funded and managed” (read more)

Delivering for America: The Macroeconomic Impacts of Reinvesting in America’s Infrastructure Systems“… quantify the significant, long-term economic benefits of rightsizing investment in the nation’s public infrastructure systems” (read the report)

Back In Business: A Blueprint for Renewing America’s Infrastructure“… an action plan to revitalize America’s aging infrastructure” (read the report)

Energy at Work: Upgrading America’s Energy Infrastructure“Unlike other forms of public infrastructure, American energy infrastructure is largely privately owned, operated and financed” (read the report)

US Water Alliance:

Water Equity Clearinghouse“… showcases the promising practices that are being developed around the country to make our water systems more equitable and inclusive” (explore the clearinghouse)

An Equitable Water Future: A National Briefing Paper“Ensuring that all people have access to safe, reliable, and affordable water and wastewater systems is the cornerstone of a sustainable and prosperous nation” (read the briefing paper)

One Water for America Policy Framework Big Idea 3 – Sustain Adequate Funding for Water Infrastructure“A resurgence in federal funding for water is unlikely in the foreseeable future. Therefore, revenue from water, sewer, and stormwater rates and charges will continue to be the primary source of funds” (access the report and view the webinar)

One Water for America Policy Framework Big Idea 4 – Blend Public and Private Expertise and Investment to Address Water Infrastructure Needs“… to attract more investment and innovation to water management, we need to address barriers to putting private money and expertise to work, while making sure that communities’ needs are met and all partners benefit” (access the report and view the webinar)

We expect to update this page in the near future to include additional perspectives from business associations and other trade associations on principles to guide American infrastructure renewal. Check back soon.

Other Non-Governmental Organization Infrastructure Resources

Georgetown Climate Center:

Adaptation Clearinghouse“An online database and networking site that serves policymakers and others who are working to help communities adapt to climate change” (visit the clearinghouse)

State and Local Adaptation Plans“State profile pages include a detailed breakdown of each state’s adaptation work and links to local adaptation plans and resources” (view the map and state plans)

Green Infrastructure Toolkit“… toolkit identifies the best green infrastructure practices from cities across the country to guide those still designing their programs” (view the toolkit)

U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC):

Green Infrastructure: Back to Basics“… an intentional focus on preserving and imitating ecological systems in the built environment” (read more)

Green Infrastructure: City Climate Action Planning“City climate action plans are steering cities in their implementation of policies and actions providing both tangible local benefits and contributing to global impact” (read more)

Green Infrastructure: Fostering Equity“Conceptually, green infrastructure development can improve environmental justice challenges, providing its many benefits to these communities. Yet, in practice, it can perpetuate inequality and spark gentrification” (read more)

World Economic Forum:

Shaping the Future of Long-Term Investing, Infrastructure and Development“How can the world close a $1 trillion annual infrastructure investment gap and design long-term oriented investment frameworks to create a sustainable future?” (read more)

Why City Residents Should Have a Say in What Their Cities Look Like“Long viewed as a hindrance to planning public works, old-fashioned public consultation can provide insights just as valuable as anything big data can offer” (read more)

What America Can Learn From a Bridge in Scotland“… planners diagnosed the problem early; took their time with careful design upfront; and built and sustained an inclusive coalition of stakeholders” (read more)

World Economic Forum on Global Infrastructure (browse)

We expect to update this page in the near future to include additional perspectives from other US and international non-governmental associations on principles to guide American infrastructure renewal or that can be adapted from the international community to provide additional perspectives on how best to rebuild our infrastructure to meet the needs of all Americans. Check back soon.


On Social Justice, Equity and Inclusiveness in American Infrastructure

PolicyLink on Infrastructure Equity“Smart, targeted, and equitable public infrastructure investments can generate enormous community benefitsjobs, business opportunities, access to public transportation, and quality affordable housing” (read about infrastructure equity)

Brookings Institution – A People First Perspective on Infrastructure“… examine infrastructure through the lens of peoples expectations: whether infrastructure is physically accessible, whether services are affordable, and whether infrastructure protects us from risk” (read about delivering access) (read about affording American infrastructure) (read about Americans at risk from infrastructure)

Natural Resources Defense Council – Taking the High Road to More and Better Infrastructure in the United States“… new vision, which we call High Road Infrastructure, preferences projects that perform core infrastructure functions (e.g., generating electricity, minimizing waste, decontaminating stormwater, and providing transportation) while also delivering social and environmental benefits (e.g., jobs, improved mobility, and climate resiliency)” (read the issue paper)

City Accelerator Guide to Urban Infrastructure Finance – Addressing Equity in the Capital Planning Process“Urban infrastructure projects have often come at significant cost to low-income communities, particularly people of color” (read the essay)

A. Rigolon, M. Browning, V. Jennings – Inequities in the Quality of Urban Park Systems: An Environmental Justice Investigation of Cities in the United States“… U.S. cities with higher median incomes and lower percentages of Latino and Non-Hispanic Black residents have higher ParkScores than other cities” (read the research paper)

Unitarian Universalist Service Committee – The Invisible Crisis: Water Unaffordability in the United States“Making clean, affordable water available to all U.S. residents is a civil rights challenge for this century and a moral challenge requiring immediate action” (read the report)

Society and Space – Investigating Infrastructures“… mainstream voices sometimes drown out all others. Yet we can also trace powerful interest in infrastructure from social movements and justice-seeking groups who name it as an object of struggle and a crucible in their work towards socially just and environmentally sustainable futures” (read the forum papers)

New Climate Economy – Unlocking the Inclusive Growth Story of the 21st Century: Accelerating Climate Action in Urgent Times“The challenge now is to accelerate the transition to a better, more inclusive, new climate economy in five key economic systems: energy, cities, food and land use, water, and industry” (read the report)

American Planning Association – Fostering Social Equity: “Equity Needs to Be Normal”“… while equity often is considered a housing issue, it also is integral to education, parks, the environment, transportation, and employment” (read about the discussion on equity) (view resources on inclusive public planning)

National Trust for Historic Preservation – Reurbanism“Adaptive reuse should be the default, and demolition a last resort” (read about adaptive reuse)

K. Hill – Adaptive Infrastructure: Landscape as an Armature for Adaptation“We need to think about every landscape we create, every piece of infrastructure we create, as something that is shaped for the flows that are going through and around it” (read the discussion)

J. Miller – Roads to Nowhere: How Infrastructure Built on American Inequality“From highways carved through thriving ‘ghettoes’ to walls segregating black and white areas, US city development has a long and divisive history” (read the article)

Brookings Institution – The Devaluation of Assets in Black Neighborhoods: The Case of Residential Property“… the value of assets—buildings, schools, leadership, and land itself—are inextricably linked to the perceptions of black people” (read more) (read the full report)

Urban Institute – Inclusive Recovery in US Cities“… local leaders are beginning to recognize that economic growth does not automatically lead to inclusion; rather intentional strategies are needed” (read the research report)

Most recent substantive page revision: March 9, 2019